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      . . (. ) 2006 . / . . , . . . . ; , 2007. 254 .

 

INVESTIGATION OF THE GENOESE FORTRESS OF CEMBALO IN 2007
(Summary p. 77
)

     The South Crimean archaeological expedition of the State Hermitage Museum and the Crimean branch of the Institute of Archaeology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine in the field season of 2006 worked at the citadel of the Genoese Fortress of Cembalo and adjoining territory and on the northwest slope of the Kastron mountain within the town walls. These sites were chosen for excavation in that year as in 2006 because of the formulation of project documentation for the future citadel's restoration which is to be carried out by the National Preserve of Tauric Chersonesos whose branch is the site under investigation.

     The archaeological investigations of 2007 were conducted on 3 sites, with total area of about 350 sq. meters and depth of excavation from 0,80 m to 3,50 m:
     Area of work along the citadel's northern wall.
     Area of the northern nave of the so-called "two-apse temple" of Cembalo.
     Temple no. 2 on the northwest slope of the Kastron mountain, within the town walls.

     On the 1 st site, in the citadel's interior space, an excavation pit of 17x6 m, with total area of 102 sq. m, was established It followed up the excavation pit of 2006.

     In close vicinity to the ground level, in the depth of 0,5 m at most under the turf, we unearthed a great number of shotshells, parts of a machine gun, shatters of a ship missile, fragments of soldier's helmets and work tools. The set of found objects formed an interesting collection of World War II period which was handed over to the museum of general education school in the town of Balaklava.

     It is possible that the builders who carried out the citadel reconstruction in the 1470s intended to build domestic and utility premises in its interior space. By all appearances, they did not have enough time for this, because in 1475 the fortress was conquered by the Turks and the developmend of Genoese fortification was brought to an end. In the time of Turks the citadel was not rendered habitable.

     On the 2nd site during the report field season we conducted a supplementary investigation of the northern nave of the so-called "two-apse temple". The works of 2007 on this site were conditioned by the fact that in 2005 we investigated the interior space of the northern nave only down to the floor level. In the report field season its interior space was entirely opened up, down to the rock surface. Two burials located in the cuttings of the rock were excavated under the floor. In one of them, placed in the center, two skeletons were found, the other burial contained poorly preserved bones of a newborn infant and a 3- to 5-year-old child.

     The 3rd site excavated in 2007 is the temple located on the western slope of the Kastron mountain, in immediate proximity to the gate tower of the eastern defense line of the Cembalo Fortress. The temple has one nave and one apse. It is situated on the terrace tending south from the gate. Under the floor at least 53 significantly damaged burials were uncovered. The main burial for which the bones of all other buried people had been displaced was made right under the western wall, on the rock. The skeleton rested on its back outstretched and was aligned according to the orientation of the temple.

     In this burial a few bronze pendants were uncovered which, presumably, had been sewn down to the clothes; under the left temple of the head a silver pin was found.

     The results of the works of 2007 are as follows:

  • a new part of the citadel of the Cembalo Fortress was investigated The new findings allow to
    develop a more detailed project-restoration specification for the large-scale restoration works
    planned by the National Preserve of Tauric Chersonesos as well as define more exactly many
    issues related to the topography and dynamics of development of the medieval embattled town;
  • the so-called "two-apse temple" of Cembalo was fully investigated;
  • for the first time since 2002 we began to investigate the temple situated in the inner part of the
    town, in the quarter full of remains of both domestic and utility premises and cult objects. The
    investigation of this area will supply new information for an understanding of processes which
    took place in the town in the period of its fullest flourish.

     
©Svetlana B. Adaxina, Viktor L. Myts
   
 
         
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