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       .. : / . . , .. . , 2006. 140 .: . .: . 4653. ISBN 966-7974-02-2
SUMMARY

         In the last decades of the XIX century the region of Tsaritsyn was invaded by "gold-rushes" - and the territory was explored for clandestine excavations undertaken by local people to find ancient treasures. Information about such robberies became known to the Imperial Archaeological Commission and in 1895 the noted scientist A. A. Spitsyn started excavations in the Kamyshin district near the villages Lebiazhie, Novaia Norka and Ust-Griaznukha. Materials from these field works were given to the Commission and are kept in the Imperial Hermitage, S.-Petersburg.
         Museum of local lore was founded in the city of Tsaritsyn (later called as Stalingrad, now Volgograd) in 1914. Archaeological collections of the new museum were collected by local scientists and students of local lore.
        In the 1920-30-s a remarkable group of research fellows was working in the Museum of local lore of Stalingrad . . Minaeva, P. I. Shishkin, A. I. Il'ina and others. Their field activity assisted in the replenishment of the collections of the Museum and were important in spreading knowlege of ancient history among local people.
        Internal political events in Soviet Union during the second half of 30-s resulted in vast repression among archaeologists of the Volga-Don region. Most of them perished in "labour camps" in Stalin's times. Archaeological research was headed then by I. V. Sinitsyn - the only survivor from the group of the Saratov Academic Archive Commission. In 1937 he directed the excavation of the necropolis near Avilovskiy khutor on the Ilovlia river.
         The main part of the material kept now in the Museum of Local Lore of Volgograd was collected after the Second World War.
         In 50-60-s of the XX century the expedition of the Institute of Archaeology of the USSR Academy of Science (Leningrad branch) directed by V. P. Shilov, was doing field-work in the Volgograd region. In this team were working archaeologists -I. P. Zasetskaya, L. Ia. Malovitskaya, A. S. Skripkin and V. I. Mamontov (at this time research fellow of Volgograd Museum). These broad fieldworks have resulted in numerous investigated graves with plenty of important material that came into the funds of the Museum. World-known are the archaeological assemblages from the Zhutovo and Verkhnepogromnoe necropoli investigated by this team.
         The Leningrad team influenced the growth of the study of archaeology in the Volgograd region. Intensification of excavation works was caused by building of large irrigative systems in the Volgograd region1.
         The archaeological laboratory of Volgograd State Pedagogical Institute (V. I. Mamontov, A. S. Skripkin, I. P. Lisitsyn, A. V. Lukashov) was a centre of fieldworks in 70-s. Works of this Institution are continued now by A.V. Kiyashko, V. I. Mamontov, E. P. Mys'kov and N. B. Skvortsov. After the foundation of Volgograd State University in 1980 fieldworks were broadened. Archaeological excavations are conducted now by the archaeological laboratory of the University and by the Archaeological Institute of Lower Volga Region (A. S. Skripkin, A. N. Diachenko, B.F. Zhelezchikov, V. M. Klepikov, V. A. Kriger, A. V. Lukashov, I. V. Sergatskov). During the last decade more institutions started to undertake their own investigations. Among them are worthy to note the Regional Scientific Centre for Guarding the Monuments of History and Culture (A. A. Nazarov, P. E. Zakharov, L. V. Gurenko), the Culture Commettee of the Administration of Volgograd Region (A. V. Sitnikov) and Volzhskiy State Humanitarian Institute (A. A. Glukhov).
         At present in the collections of the Volgograd Museum of Local Lore there is kept significant collection of antiquities of the Sarmatian Culture, among them unique and rare items made of gold and silver by ancient craftsmen for barbarian kinglets and nobility. These precious items are witnesses of the ancient history of the Volgo-Don region and remind us the traditions of our ancestors.
         In this volume are published all items made of precious metals from graves of the Sarmatian Culture, which are kept in the collections of the Volgograd Museum of Local Lore. The main part of this volume is the complete Catalogue of such items prepared by V. Mordvintseva and N. Khabarova. It is followed by an essay devoted to some categories of jewellery and toreutics (V. Mordvintseva).
    Authors feel a deep gratitude to O. Lokhova, the Head Keeper of the Volgograd Museum of Local Lore for her priceless help. It is worthy to note the help of D. Sharapov and A. Gritsaeva in selecting archive materials for the Catalogue.
         All drawings were done by V. Mordvintseva. Photos are made by V. Mordvintseva, N. Khabarova and A. Severianov. Authors are grateful to Mr. John Roberts for his kind help in correcting Summary, which was written in English by V. Mordvintseva.
         Great help in studying jewellery and jewellery literature was received by V. Mordvintseva during the work in cooperation with M. Treister on the investigative project "Zwischen technischer und kunstlerischer Innovation und Beharren in lokalen Traditionen. Zu toreutischen Werken und Schmuckgegenstanden im nordlichen Schwarz-meergebiet"2. headed by Frau Dr. F. Fless. We are cordially grateful to H. Parzinger, F. Fless, H. von Hesberg, H. Salskov Roberts for their help and for the possibility of working in the libraries of Berlin, Cologne, and Copenhagen.
         Jewellery studies in Russia (modern state of research). Up to the present time academic literature on jewellery in the West is numerous and various. Nearly all important collections of ancient jewellery are published, observed in special surveys, and included in typologies. However, there still remain the questions of local centres of provenance, regional chronologies built on the basis of context material and the problem of definition of originals and forgeries.
         The situation with academic literature on the territory of former Soviet Union is different. Most numerous are publications of complexes with jewellery3.
         Among museums only the collection of jewellery from Chersonesos, kept in State Historical Museum (Moscow) was published4. This monography was for a long time the only special work on antique jewellery, and it became a handbook for several generations of Soviet archaeologists. At the same time this book was responsible for number of myths in the science of our country, including opinions about large scale import of jewellery from Syria and Middle Asia to the North Pontic region (without notes on source of such information)5, or theories about the late date for jewellery inlayed with stones (not earlier than IIII . A.D.)6.
         Of great importance was the publication of Greek Gold by J. Ogden and D. Williams in the Russian language7. In this volume were published essays on the techniks of ancient goldsmiths and on centres of jewellery production. However, this catalogue consisted of mainly well-known artefacts from the Metropolitan Museum, the British Museum and the State Hermitage. The chronological frame of the book (IVIII . B.C.) is also too limited for students of Barbarian cultures of the North Pontic region and Eastern European Steppes.
         The great number of professional surveys of jewellery are published mainly abroad8. It has meant in a low level of jewellery knowlege in our country. At the same time interest in ancient jewellery and toreutics is growing. Many new articles and essays on this theme have appeared. A special conference on Jewellery Art and Material Culture is held in the State Hermitage twice a year, with published volume of every meeting9.
         Apart from these articles other kinds of works on jewellery have become a sign of modern times. In recent years many collectors of ancient artefacts have appeared in Russia and Ukraine. Huge-scale demands for antiquities have resulted in a huge amount of forgeries. Some of them have already been declared as originals by professional archaeologists110. The desire of collectors to see their collections published is understandable. In this way objects become recognizable by scientists and moreover get better price. To publish a private item without proper context it is worth remembering that such material is second hand and should be examined critically. When forgeries are already published it is hard to improve the situation.
         Of course not all objects from private collections are of modern production. A great misfortune for archaeology and for humanity are the large-scale clandestine excavations throughout South Russia (Kuban region) and Ukraine (the Crimea in particular).
         Thus, the contemporary situation with jewellery studies in Russia could be characterized as corresponding to the state of science in the West in 60-s of the XX century: a large amount of finds having no identification papers have appeared in museums and private collections, with discussions concerning their authenticity, the search for methods to define forgeries, the growth of interest to build typology and the chronology of this category of material.
         Short characteristic of the jewellery collection 2 c. B.C. - 4 . A.D. of the Volgograd Museum of Local Lore. All objects being discussed in this volume were found in an archaeological context giving proofs of their originality.
         Items made of precious metals played a distinctive role in the history of mankind as objects of prestige and signs of high social position. In this capacity jewellery and toreutics were placed in the Sarmatian graves.
         To the first chronological period (IIII c. B.C.) belong objects from 38 complexes: Baranovka-I, 10-9; Belokamenka, 1-3,6-5,7-3; Berdia 1-7; Bykovo 11-3,2-3, 5-7; Varlamov 2-5; Vengelovka 2-4; Verkhnepogromnoe 1-12,6-5,7-6,14-11; Verkhny Balykley 7-2; Volzhsky 8-6; Zheltukhin 1-1; Zhurov 2-5; Zhutovo 27 (votive deposition in mound), 27-4, 27-5, 30-1; Zapadnye Mogily 18-2, 18-7, 21-2; Zaplavnoe 8-9; Ilyevka 4-2; Koroli 4-1; Oktyabrsky-V 1-1, 1-2, 3-1; Pervomaisky-I 13-3; Pervomaisky-VII 42-4; Pisarevka-II 6-2; Priozernoe 2-8; Pyatnadtsaty poselok 5-3; Khimkombinat-B 4-5; Tsarev 23-4. In this number 9 of 38 graves were robbed.
         To the second chronological period (I - first half of II .A.D.) belong objects from 36 complexes: Antonov 5-1; Baranovka-I 1-1, 3-1,4-1, 14-1; Berdia 3-1, 5-1, 6-1, 8-2; Verbovsky-I 6-1, Verbovsky-II 4-1; Verbovsky-III 2-1; Vetyutnev 1-1; Zhutovo 67-2, 71-1, 82-1; Zakanalny 2-1, 10-1, 11-1; Zapadnye Mogily 22-1; Kilyakovka 3-8; Kolobovka 5-7; Koroleva Mogila 1-1; Malaya Vorobtsovka 3-1; Novy Rogachik 6-1; Oktyabrsky-I 1-1; Oktyabrsky-II 1-2, 2-1, 3-1; Pervomaisky-I 1-2; Pervomaisky-VII 14-1; Pervomaisky-IX 4-1; Peregruznoe 5-1; Politotdelskoe 2-7; Primorsky-I 6-1; Razdol'e 2-2. In this number 28 of 36 graves were robbed.
         To the third chronological period (second half of II-IV . A.D.) belong objects from 7 complexes with jewellery objects: Abganerovo-II 13-1, 33-1; Bykovo 3-1; Vesely-VI 1-1; Ivanovka 2-1; Nagavsky-II 11-1; Solyanka-I 3-2. In this number 2 of 7 graves were robbed.
         This chronological disproportions in the number of burials with jewellery and objects of toreutic in different periods were caused by general changes in the Sarmatian culture. It is particularly obvious for burials of the third chronological period. Standardization of the burial rite in times of the so-called Late Sarmatian Culture was followed by relatively small number of objects of social prestige. The same situation could be observed in other Barbarian territories of Eastern Europe, for example in the Crimea from the second half of the II to the first half of the III A.D.
         The majority of graves containing jewellery and toreutics is dated to the I c. B.C. -I c. A.D. Unfortunately those graves were mostly robbed. Perhaps robbers were aware of the richness of the burials, which usually were made in graves of square or broad rectangular shape.
         For different periods of the Sarmatian Culture there are tendencies to use peculiar categories of jewellery and toreutics.
         For the graves of the 1st chronological period (III c. B.C.) daggers plated with golden foil are characteristic (Cat. 20, Cat. 25, Cat. 61, Cat. 77). Most of them were not the proper weapon but substitutes used for ritual purposes or to show social status.
         Jewellery objects - temple pendants or earrings, bracelets, torques - in this period are mainly made of gold wire curled in several coils. Some of earrings are supplemented with granulation. Another group of objects show long narrow platings with representations of animals (Cat. 214, Cat. 77, Cat. 134, Cat. 18, Cat. 181). The are dated from the I c. B.C. to the first half of the I c. A.D. Most likely these items functioned as a kind of ritual baton. They were found exclusively in the graves of warriors of high social rank. In the grave these batons were put on the most meaningful places: swords, arrow-cases, left hand of the buried. From the I c. B.C. and in the I c. A.D. the burials of highest rank are accompanied with sets of precious vessels.
         Set of silverware was found in Oktyabrsky-V 11: a beaker with the handle in the shape of hare (Cat. 163), a hemispherical bowl with long petals and central rosette on the bottom (Cat. 164), conical beaker (Cat. 165) and a low conical phiala (Cat. 166).
         In the grave of the burial 4 of Verbovsky-II necropolis were found a vessel with lid and two handles in the shape of wolves (Cat. 52) and a cup with internal medallion representing Gorgona Medusa (Cat. 53).
         Two compexes with silver vessels originated from the Berdia necropolis. One is represented by a beaker of conical shape (Cat. 42), another - by two hemispherical cups with handles shaped as griffins (Cat 27).
         Frequent finds in the Sarmatian graves of the first centuries A.D. are sewn appliques or tubes for necklaces. They have been found quite often, and nearly in every grave containing jewellery objects. Other jewellery items are represented more rarely, due to many of robbed complexes. In this period new types of jewellery ornaments appeared. Among them are earrings with pendants on chains, amulet-pendants, buckles and other objects.
         Prestigious objects of the 3rd chronological period (second half of the IIIV . A.D.) are represented by belt fittings (buckles, tips) and some jewellery objects - mainly found in rich graves of the second half of the II . A.D. (Nagavsky and Vesely).
         Publication of jewellery and toreutic objects from the Volgograd Museum of Local Lore is only the first step in the research of jewellery of the Sarmatian Culture. It provides material for a future comparative study.
    _______________________________________________

    1 1995, 107-110
    2Project was supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.
    3 1986; , 1992, 142-161; , 1989; 1994; , 1991; Loboda, Puzdrovskij, Zajcev 2002; Mordvintseva, Zaytsev 2003, etc.
    4 1956.
    5 1956, 17.
    6 1956, 19.

    7, 1995.
    8Treister 1996, 172-184; 2001; 2002; 2002; 2003, 295-304; 2004; Tonkova 1995.
    9See for example: , 2003, 18-20; 2004, 47-50; 2004, 64-66. , 2004, 81-83; 2003, 99-102; 2003, 118-121.
    10 2004; 2004; , 2004.
© V. Mordvintseva
 
         
19 2009 .
 
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