OF THE GENOESE FORTRESS OF CEMBALO IN 2007
South Crimean archaeological expedition of the State Hermitage
Museum and the Crimean branch of the Institute of Archaeology
of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine in the field
season of 2006 worked at the citadel of the Genoese Fortress
of Cembalo and adjoining territory and on the northwest slope
of the Kastron mountain within the town walls. These sites were
chosen for excavation in that year as in 2006 because of the
formulation of project documentation for the future citadel's
restoration which is to be carried out by the National Preserve
of Tauric Chersonesos whose branch is the site under investigation.
archaeological investigations of 2007 were conducted on 3 sites,
with total area of about 350 sq. meters and depth of excavation
from 0,80 m to 3,50 m:
Area of work along the citadel's
Area of the northern nave of the
so-called "two-apse temple" of Cembalo.
Temple no. 2 on the northwest
slope of the Kastron mountain, within the town walls.
the 1 st site, in the citadel's interior space, an excavation
pit of 17x6 m, with total area of 102 sq. m, was established
It followed up the excavation pit of 2006.
close vicinity to the ground level, in the depth of 0,5 m at
most under the turf, we unearthed a great number of shotshells,
parts of a machine gun, shatters of a ship missile, fragments
of soldier's helmets and work tools. The set of found objects
formed an interesting collection of World War II period which
was handed over to the museum of general education school in
the town of Balaklava.
is possible that the builders who carried out the citadel reconstruction
in the 1470s intended to build domestic and utility premises
in its interior space. By all appearances, they did not have
enough time for this, because in 1475 the fortress was conquered
by the Turks and the developmend of Genoese fortification was
brought to an end. In the time of Turks the citadel was not
the 2nd site during the report field season we conducted a supplementary
investigation of the northern nave of the so-called "two-apse
temple". The works of 2007 on this site were conditioned
by the fact that in 2005 we investigated the interior space
of the northern nave only down to the floor level. In the report
field season its interior space was entirely opened up, down
to the rock surface. Two burials located in the cuttings of
the rock were excavated under the floor. In one of them, placed
in the center, two skeletons were found, the other burial contained
poorly preserved bones of a newborn infant and a 3- to 5-year-old
3rd site excavated in 2007 is the temple located on the western
slope of the Kastron mountain, in immediate proximity to the
gate tower of the eastern defense line of the Cembalo Fortress.
The temple has one nave and one apse. It is situated on the
terrace tending south from the gate. Under the floor at least
53 significantly damaged burials were uncovered. The main burial
for which the bones of all other buried people had been displaced
was made right under the western wall, on the rock. The skeleton
rested on its back outstretched and was aligned according to
the orientation of the temple.
this burial a few bronze pendants were uncovered which, presumably,
had been sewn down to the clothes; under the left temple of
the head a silver pin was found.
results of the works of 2007 are as follows: