Viktor P. DISCUSSION
Kabazi II: Last Interglacial occupation, environment and subsistence
/ V. Chabai, J. Richter, and Th. Uthmeier, eds. – Simferopol, Cologne:
Shlyakh, 2005. – P. 22.
can be concluded that the actual sedimentation rates which led
to the accumulation of the entire Kabazi II sequence were not
very impressive. Over a period of roughly 90 thousand years, only
eight metres of in situ sediments accumulated, four metres of
which were deposited during Stage 5, one metre formed in the course
of Stage 4, and three metres accumulated during Stage 3. However,
even this gradual accumulation of sediments still prevented bone
material from weathering and artefacts from becoming patinated.
At the same time, the human visits to the site were not frequent,
and the, intensities of the visits were extremely low. Layers
comprising human occupation are separated by pronounced sterile
sediments, which often, but not always (Patou-Mathis, Chabai 2003),
pre¬vent the appearance of palimpsests. The number of levels was
the result of single economic (hunting) episodes (Patou-Mathis
industrial variability of Kabazi II is represented by Western
Crimean Mousterian and Mi-coquian. The former was found in the
deposits of Stage 3, while the latter was discovered in the sediments
of Stages 3, 4 and sub-stages 5a, 5b, 5c and 5d. Some time ago,
it was claimed that "Taubachi-an" industry was present
in Unit IV (Stepanchuk 1994a, 1994b, 1998). However, it would
now appear that Unit IV "Taubachian" is actually a redeposited
collection of naturally damaged artefacts.
the time of Units A, II, IIA and III accumulation, that is, from
the end of the sub-stage 5d to the end of Stage 3, the site area
was used as a butchering station. No traces of any other kind
of fauna exploitation were observed. During the same time, the
patterns of raw material exploitation differ significantly. On-site
flint reduction was characteristic in levels A3A to IIA/1, while
during the earlier period of the same Stage 3, the pattern of
flint exploitation was based on off-site reduction with further
import of tools and blanks to the site area. In other words, the
Western Crimean Mousterian sequence is represented by 20 occupations
for butch¬ering: 19 occupations used on-site flint reduction and
the inhabitants of one occupation of level IIA/2 preferred to
use tools and blanks imported to the site.
35 occupations with Micoquian as¬semblages were based on imported
tools, preforms and blanks to the site, during the time span from
the sub-stage 5d to Stage 3, inclusively. Such a sig¬nificant
change in the raw material supply strategy was due to topographical
changes. Stage 4 and the beginning of Stage 3 correlate with the
regression of the Black Sea basin, which caused the incision of
riverbeds and the erosion of slopes. It is likely that all of
these factors resulted in the exposure of the Mount Mylnaya flint
outcrop, situated on the same elevation as the 3rd terrace of
the Alma River - about 300 m above sea level. According to Gerasimenko
the disappearance of the alder at the beginning of Stage 3 (pollen
zone VIII) might be connected with the Alma River incision (Gerasimenko
1999, Chapter 2, this volume). Thus, the appearance of the local
flint source led to changes in the strategy of raw material supply.
the most part of sub-stage 5d, the inhabitants of Units V and
VI occupations continued to use tools, blanks, preforms and cores
imported to the site. However, the pattern of faunal exploitation
changes radically. The occupations of Units V and VI show some
evidence of primary butchering. The faunal exploitation demonstrates
a much more complex character (Patou-Mathis, Chapter 5, this volume).
All levels of Units V and VI produce some burnt bones and artefacts.
In level V/3 the fire-place was studied, and in level V/6 the
ashy cluster was excavated. The site was used as a short-term
camp. The environmental studies suggest that this camp was situated
in the vicinity of the river bank (Chapters 2, 3, 4, this volume).
conclude, the occupations of Kabazi II belong to two technologically
and typologically different industries which demonstrate two different
patterns of raw material supply and two different modes of faunal
exploitation. No clear connections can be made between the industrial
type, the raw material used and the exploitation of fauna.